Inside GNSS • March/April 2017
Inside GNSS • January/February 2017
The BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) is China’s contribution to the world in the domain of Global Satellite Navigation System (GNSS). The BDS is being developed by the Chinese government, mainly through military departments, with key considerations for China’s national security, economic interests and social progress.
GNSS & the Law
GNSS & The Law delves into the debates and developments around the new area of global satellite navigation system law.
This occasional feature by guest writers is coordinated by Ingo Baumann, co-founder and partner of BHO Legal in Cologne, Germany. His practice focuses on European high technology projects mainly in the space sector.
Precise time is crucial to a great variety of economic activities around the world. Here, the authors will show how the time obtained from GNSS satellite signals is related to the international time scale, UTC, and explain how GNSS receivers can be used to ensure that they are operating correctly, as reliable and traceable sources of time.
Bearing in mind the mature technology and the policy of free access to open signals provided by GPS, many questions arose about why China should make substantive efforts to develop its own GNSS.
The concept of what constitutes “a reasonable expectation of privacy” from a geolocation standpoint is evolving in the United States. This change is not taking place in a vacuum. Rather, it directly results from growing concerns shared by the public, regulators, and lawmakers about the implications of a “Big Data” society.
A Japanese attorney specializing in space law discusses the legal context of Japan's Quasi-Zenith Satellite System
The Russian Federation has a large body of laws, rules, and regulations dealing with positioning, navigation, and timing in general and GLONASS in particular. This column provides an overview of the associated Russian legal environment, authored by a leader of PNT regulatory framework development at the Roscosmos Central Scientific Research Institute of Machine Building.
In this new Inside GNSS column, a legal expert explores the question: Should users of GNSS or third parties be able to claim compensation for damage suffered from reliance on malfunctioning GNSS systems?
Level playing field or national “champions”? This article by two legal scholars examines the legal, economic, and political issues arising from the cross-currents caused by the requirements of international trade agreements and the inclination of nations to favor their own GNSS programs.
Inside GNSS • November/December 2016
This year India entered the club of nations operating their own satellite navigation system. The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) has a constellation of seven satellites – three in geostationary orbit and four in geosynchronous orbit — that are currently functioning satisfactorily from their designated orbital positions.
Inside GNSS • September/October 2016
Reasonable Expectations of Privacy and a discussion of privacy in the United States typically begins with the Fourth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, which provides that “[t]he right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated.” In U.S. v Katz, the U.S. Supreme Court found that this Fourth Amendment protection created an individual’s constitutional right to privacy.
Inside GNSS • July/August 2016
Japan’s regional and augmentation positioning system, the Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS), is a project yet to be developed. While it will become a constellation of seven satellites covering the western Pacific area, only “Michibiki,” the first satellite launched in 2010 for technological validation , is now in orbit.
Inside GNSS • March/April 2016
The legal and regulatory framework of the Russian Federation covers not only the GLONASS system, but the country’s overall positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) system as well.
The term PNT is a synonym for navigation activities as defined in the Federal Law on Navigation Activities. The PNT system in the Russian Federation is defined as the combination of administrative and technical means that provide spatial and time data to all user groups, with GLONASS as a key element.
Inside GNSS • November/December 2015
Global navigation satellite systems have become core elements of the global economy. Essential for many civilian applications and innovations, GNSS brings rapidly growing economic benefits due to convergence of GNSS with smartphones, geospatial data, unmanned aerial vehicles, automated driving systems and other commercial technologies.
Inside GNSS • July/August 2015
The availability of several GNSSes promises advanced positioning, navigation, and timing services with higher availability and improved accuracy. According to a European GNSS Agency (GSA) market study, nearly 60 percent of receivers, chipsets, and modules already support at least two GNSS constellations, showing that multi-constellation is becoming a standard feature across all market segments. That development brings up questions of law and regulation that require careful handling by GNSS manufacturers, service providers, and policy makers.