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Sandy Kennedy hiking in the Canadian Rockies near Banff

Sandy Kennedy's Compass Points

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Engineering specialties

Algorithm development, Kalman filtering, GNSS/INS integration, digital signal processing, embedded software, system integration

Favorite equation

Kennedy really likes the foundational differential equation, the basis of Kalman filtering, because it can become so many different things:

x-dot = Fx + Gw

In this equation, x-dot is the derivative of the state vector, x is the state vector of unknown parameters you are solving for, F is the dynamics matrix that describes how the states are interrelated, w is the noise vector and G is the shaping matrix of the noise.

GNSS event that most signified to you that GNSS had “arrived”

Once her parents had figured out how to use their in-car navigation unit, Kennedy knew GNSS had truly arrived!

What popular notions about GNSS most annoy you?

“People think GNSS works indoors . . . . Well, it does, but not very precisely.” Another gripe. “Thinking that receivers are somehow sending data to the satellites. They are called receivers for a reason.”

What GNSS product, application, or engineering innovation would you most like to see?

Scuba diving navigation aids that use GNSS on the surface and switch to other sensors underwater. Such a tool could have scientific uses for mapping reefs and their inhabitants as well.


2009 — Method of positioning using GPS in a restricted coverage environment, used for seismic geophone positioning. 2015 — Navigation system with rapid GNSS and inertial initialization

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